Non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory lung disease, which is regarded as an “orphan” lung disease,
with little research devoted to the study of this condition. Bronchiectasis results in impaired quality of life and mortality if left
untreated. The tools available in the armamentarium for the management of bronchiectasis entail antibiotic therapy traditionally
used to treat exacerbations, stratagems to improve mucociliary clearance, and avoidance of toxins. Macrolides have been known
for the last two decades to have not only anti-bacterial effects but immunomodulatory properties as well. In cystic fibrosis, the use
of macrolides is well documented in subjects colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to improve quality of life and lung function.
There is currently emerging evidence to suggest the benefit of macrolides in subjects not colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
This beneficial effect has been less explored in the context of bronchiectasis from other causes. The purpose of this paper is to
review the current literature on the use of macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis related bronchiectasis in paediatrics.