Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from Scolytus ratzeburgi infesting Betula pendula and B. pubescens in Norway. Fungi were identified based on morphology, DNA sequence comparison for two gene regions and phylogenetic analyses. The most abundant fungus was Ophiostoma karelicum, suggesting a specific relationship between the fungus, the vector insect and the host tree. Our results suggest that O. karelicum occurs across the geographic range of S. ratzeburgi and its close relatedness to the Dutch elm disease fungi suggests that it could be important if introduced into other parts of the world. Other fungi, only occasionally isolated from S. ratzeburgi, were identified as O. quercus and a novel taxon, described here as O. denticiliatum sp. nov.