The e-Education policy was introduced into schools with the intention of “transforming
learning and teaching” (, p. 1). The policy places an obligation on education to use
educational technology to deliver on expectations of quality education for economic
growth and social development. Utilising a case study approach and backward mapping
principles to policy implementation, this study sets out to explore how teachers appropriate1
information and communication technology (ICT) policy to influence teaching and
learning in South African schools. Qualitative methods were employed to capture data
through classroom observations, interviews and document analysis. Data was analysed
using grounded theory methods. Findings that are unique to the South African context
were fivefold. First, the national e-Education policy existed as an invisible policy within the
school context. Second, there was a lack of policy support and district presence in schools.
Third, districts and schools had conflicting ideas of establishing collaborative support.
Fourth, teachers’ beliefs, attitudes and agency promoted ICT practice as policy. And fifth,
the absence of district support catalysed the emergence of communities of practice. This
study asserts the notion that for policy to be implemented teachers should be instrumental
partners in the formulation of policy. Teachers should be encouraged to form ICT communities
of practice to support their teaching practice and foster policy implementation.