The aim of our study was to assess associations between smoking behavior before and
during pregnancy and selected adverse birth outcomes. This study is based on the Murmansk
County Birth Registry (MCBR). Our study includes women who delivered a singleton pregnancy
after 37 weeks of gestation (N = 44,486). Smoking information was self-reported and assessed at the
first antenatal visit during pregnancy. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.
The highest proportion of infants with low values of birth weight, birth length, head circumference,
ponderal index and of the Apgar score at 5 min was observed for women who smoked both before
and during pregnancy. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes
smoked per day during pregnancy and the odds of the aforementioned adverse birth outcomes;
neither were there significant differences in their occurrences among non-smokers and those who
smoked before but not during pregnancy. Moreover, smoking reduction during pregnancy relative
to its pre-gestation level did not influence the odds of the adverse birth outcomes. Our findings
emphasize a continued need for action against tobacco smoking during pregnancy.
Khupakonke, Sikhulile; Beke, Andy; Amoko, Donald H.A.(BioMed Central, 2017-12-02)
BACKGROUND : Risks of severe, avoidable maternal and neonatal complications at birth are increased if the birth occurs
before arrival at the health facility and in the absence of skilled birth attendants. Birth Before ...
Ahn, Sang-Keun(University of Pretoria, 2010-10-24)
The present work is a new attempt to interpret on the episode in Genesis 18:1-15 by the method of narrative criticism. The general tendency on the narrative had focused on the exemplary act of Abraham’s hospitality ...