Several widespread occurrences of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese have been recorded in the United States and some European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities have linked the occurrences to contamination of the processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several experts questioned how to unequivocally link the blue color to the presence of the microorganism. To establish a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible for the defect and study the evolution of the coloration under different storage conditions, we developed an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of P. fluorescens. The purpose of the system was to determine whether P.fluorescens strains, isolated from Mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, were able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental conditions. Thirty-six trials of experimental inoculation of Mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids were conducted using various suspensions of P.fluorescens (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P.fluorescens CFBP 3150, and P. fluorescens 349 field strain isolated from blue-colored Mozzarella cheese) at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curves of all tested P.fluorescens strains demonstrated that after 3 d of incubation the concentration was generally >106 cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in either tryptic soy broth (control) or conditioning brine. Prolonged incubation for 5 d at either 20°C or 8°C led to concentrations up to 109 cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in tryptic soy broth and up to 108 cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All Mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of P. fluorescens, except those opened 1 h after packaging and stored at 8°C, showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which appeared from 1 to 72 h after opening the packaging, and was proportional to colony count, duration of storage, and storage temperature. With the proposed system, which enabled a larger number of samples to be analyzed under controlled experimental conditions and a large amount of data to be generated in a short time, we described precisely how and under which conditions the presence of P. fluorescens in Mozzarella cheese is responsible for the anomalous blue coloration. The system will help producers intercept contaminated batches and help consumers avoid the conditions under which the defect can appear.