This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performedon a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material fromtwo European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to com-pile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencieswere calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%),periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus(44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated thatthe group under study had an average rate of attrition compared toother southern African populations. Frequency and intensity datawere compared to several other samples from both the pre-contactand contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcomeof the study suggested that the group under study was most likelyin a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with thoseof groups from a low socio-economic status.