Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) have a widespread association with fungi,
especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) that cause blue staining of wood, and
in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have
focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a
biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between
fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously
thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now
beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly
known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia.
The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence
the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur
in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is
known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new
environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and
climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be
moved along with them.