The story of the death of Nadab and Abihu in Leviticus 10 has always been a difficult text
to understand. Recently it has been used in debates about possible power struggles between
Aaronides and Zadokites in post-exilic Yehud. The article critically explores the work of three
European scholars, namely Achenbach, Nihan and Otto on this issue. Initially most of the
traditional questions asked by scholars are addressed such as what the ‘strange fire’ was, and
what exactly Nadab and Abihu did wrong. The focus of the article then moves to whether
Leviticus 10 reflects badly on certain priestly groups.