Diplodia scrobiculata and Diplodia pinea are endophytic fungi associated with dieback and cankers of mainly Pinus spp. in many parts of the world. These two fungi are closely related and have, in the past, been considered to represent two morphological forms (A and B morphotypes) of D. pinea. dsRNA elements are known to occur in both D. scrobiculata and D. pinea. Two dsRNA elements from D. pinea, SsRV1 and SsRV2, have been characterized previously. The aim of this study was to characterize a third dsRNA element that is most commonly associated with D. scrobiculata and to determine its phylogenetic relationship to other mycoviruses. The 5018-bp genome of this element was sequenced, and it is referred to as D. scrobiculata RNA virus 1, or DsRV1. It has two open reading frames (ORFs), one of which codes for a putative polypeptide with a high degree of similarity to proteins of the vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) machinery, and the other for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic comparisons based on amino acid sequence alignments of the RdRp revealed that DsRV1 is closely related to a dsRNA element isolated from Phlebiopsis gigantea (PgV2), and they grouped separately from virus families in which mycoviruses have previously been described. Although D. pinea and D. scrobiculata are closely related, DsRV1 does not share high sequence identity with SsRV1 or SsRV2, and they probably have different recent evolutionary origins.