An entomological survey was conducted in Cameroon between October 2004 and September 2005, in nine localities targeted for malaria vector control based on adult productivity and variability. Mosquitoes were collected by human-landing catches (HLCs) and pyrethrum spray catches. A total of 12 500 anophelines were collected and dissected: Anopheles gambiae s.l. (56.86%), An. funestus s.l. (32.57%), An. hancocki (9.38%), and An. nili (1.18%). Applying PCR revealed that specimens of the An. funestus group were An. funestus s.s. and An. gambiae complex were mostly An. melas and An. gambiae s.s. of the M and S
molecular forms with the M forms being the most predominant. The natural distribution patterns of Anopheles species were largely determined by altitude with some species having unique environmental tolerance limits. A human blood index (HBI) of 99.05% was recorded. Mean probability of daily survival of the malaria vectors was 0.92, with annual mean life
expectancy of 21.9 days and the expectation of infective life was long with a mean of 7.4
days. The high survival rates suggest a high vector potential for the species. This information
enhances the development of a more focused and informed vector control intervention.