Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease affecting humans and many domestic and wild animals. Domestic animals showing appreciable morbidity and mortality include dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Both canine and feline babesiosis are diseases characterised by haemolytic anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. Canine babesiosis can range from chronic or subclinical to peracute and fatal, depending on the virulence of the species and the susceptibility of the host. This paper deals with canine babesiosis with specific reference to pathogenesis, clinical findings, complications, diagnosis and treatment, as well as newly identified prognostic factors in Babesia rossi babesiosis.