Greenhouse cultivation can increase crop yield and alleviate the food shortage caused by population
growth and reduction of arable land. However, the greenhouse production process consumes lots of
energy and water. The energy consumed mainly comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, which
will produce lots of greenhouse gases. In addition, the operating efficiency of some greenhouses is
low, resulting in energy and water waste and increasing production costs. Therefore, the greenhouse
system needs to be optimized to improve the operating efficiency. In this thesis, different methods of
greenhouse operation efficiency optimization to improve energy efficiency and water efficiency are
In Chapter 3, three strategies for greenhouse operation optimization are studied. Strategy 1 focuses
on the optimization of the greenhouse heating system to save energy. The optimization of the heating
system can effectively reduce energy consumption. However, people often pay more attention to
reducing energy costs than reducing energy consumption in the production process to obtain more
profits. Strategy 2 is to reduce the energy cost. It should be noted that Strategy 2 only considers the cost of heating and cooling, while the cost of ventilation and carbon dioxide (CO2) is not considered.
Strategy 3 reduces the cost of greenhouse heating, cooling, ventilation and CO2 consumption. In
addition, greenhouse environmental factors must be kept within the required ranges. In Chapter 3,
a dynamic greenhouse climate model is proposed. In the modeling process, the influence of crop
growth and the interaction between different variables are considered to improve model accuracy.
The proposed optimization problems are solved by ‘fmincon’ function with sequential quadratic programming
(SQP) algorithm in MATLAB. Compared with Strategy 1, Strategy 2 has higher energy
consumption but lower energy cost. Because Strategy 2 can shift some loads from high electricity
price period to low electricity price period. Moreover, among the three strategies proposed, Strategy
3 has the lowest cost.
It should be pointed out that the strategies studied in Chapter 3 only consider the impact of the greenhouse
climate, but ignore the irrigation, which is also important for greenhouse production. In Chapter
4, four optimization methods are proposed. These optimization methods consider climate control and
irrigation control. Therefore, strategies proposed in this chapter can not only improve energy efficiency,
but also increase water efficiency. Method 1 reduces the energy consumption. Method 2
reduces the water consumption. Method 3 reduces the CO2 consumption. Method 4 reduces the total
cost of greenhouse heating, cooling, ventilation, irrigation and CO2 supply. In addition, greenhouse
environmental factors and crop water demand need to be met. The dynamic model of greenhouse
environmental factors presented in Chapter 3 is used for greenhouse climate control. A modified crop
evapotranspiration model is proposed to predict crop water demand. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis
method is introduced. The influence of prices and system constraints on optimization results is studied.
The cost of Method 4 can be reduced compared with other methods. In addition, changes of
prices and system constraints have a great impact on optimization results.
In Chapters 3 and 4, open loop optimization strategies for a greenhouse system operation are studied.
However, these strategies have low control accuracy under system disturbances. Therefore, it is necessary
to adopt some control methods to improve the control accuracy. In Chapter 5, a hierarchical
model predictive control method is presented. The upper layer generates the optimal reference trajectories
by solving greenhouse operation optimization problems. The lower layer designs controllers to
follow obtained reference trajectories. Two model predictive controllers (MPC) are designed. Two
performance indicators, namely relative average deviation (RAD) and maximum relative deviation
(MRD), are used to compare designed controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed MPC can deal with greenhouse system disturbances and the problem of model plant mismatch better
than the open loop control method.
In Chapter 6, the findings of this thesis are summarized. Moreover, some topics for future research