• This distinctive species is a common soil fungus with widespread distribution in soils in warmer climates
• It also is quite widely distributed in some kinds of foods, especially cereals.
This distinctive species is a common soil fungus with widespread distribution in soils in warmer climates. It also is quite widely distributed in some kinds of foods, especially cereals. This species is not considered common to indoor environments, however, it has been frequently associated with the brewing industry. This fungus should be considered allergenic.
Unknown neurotoxins. • Aspergillus clavatus -intoxication is a highly fatal, tremorgenic mycotoxicoses of cattle resulting in irreversible neuronal damage.
• In SA it is caused by the ingestion of mould-infected sorghum beer residue (maroek) or infected sprouting grain.
Mechanism of action:
Theory: Primarily a neurotoxin destroying neurones and leading to secondary muscular degeneration and damage due to neuronal onduction disturbances.
Central nervous system.
Severity and progression depends on dose and neurones affected.
2. Severe muscular tremors - start in flanks and spread to whole body
• stiff-legged gait,
• short steps,
• splay-legged stance,
• hocks bent,
• forelimbs and neck extended,
• knuckling over,
4. Paresis/paralysis - trembling until death
1.Salivation 2.Constipation 3.Cannot eat or drink.
• Rapid rigor mortis• Most obvious lesions in musculature:
- degeneration and necrotic changes in whole muscles or focal areas
- insertions or origins
- grey white appearance
• Petechial haemorrhages
• Severe myocardial degeneration often seen.
• Degeneration and necrosis of larger neurones (nuclei destroyed)
- Motor cells of ventral horns of spinal cord
- Larger neurones of nuclei of medulla oblongata, midbrain, thalamus
• Hyaline degeneration and necrosis of skeletal muscles
• Myocardial damage.
• No treatment
• Prognosis very poor.
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 28.4 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 2: 24.8 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 3: 105 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 4: 9.7 kb, 72 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.