Health impact of air pollution from shipping in the baltic sea : effects of different spatial resolutions in Sweden

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dc.contributor.author Mwase, Nandi S.
dc.contributor.author Ekström, Alicia
dc.contributor.author Jonson, Jan Eiof
dc.contributor.author Svensson, Erik
dc.contributor.author Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
dc.contributor.author Wichmann, Janine
dc.contributor.author Molnár, Peter
dc.contributor.author Stockfelt, Leo
dc.date.accessioned 2021-05-14T05:25:00Z
dc.date.available 2021-05-14T05:25:00Z
dc.date.issued 2020-11
dc.description.abstract In 2015, stricter regulations to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions and particulate air pollution from shipping were implemented in the Baltic Sea. We investigated the effects on population exposure to particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) from shipping and estimated related morbidity and mortality in Sweden’s 21 counties at different spatial resolutions. We used a regional model to estimate exposure in Sweden and a city-scale model for Gothenburg. Effects of PM2.5 exposure on total mortality, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were estimated using exposure–response functions from the literature and combining them into disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). PM2.5 exposure from shipping in Gothenburg decreased by 7% (1.6 to 1.5 µg/m3 ) using the city-scale model, and 35% (0.5 to 0.3 µg/m3 ) using the regional model. Different population resolutions had no effects on population exposures. In the city-scale model, annual premature deaths due to shipping PM2.5 dropped from 97 with the high-sulfur scenario to 90 in the low-sulfur scenario, and in the regional model from 32 to 21. In Sweden, DALYs lost due to PM2.5 from Baltic Sea shipping decreased from approximately 5700 to 4200. In conclusion, sulfur emission restrictions for shipping had positive effects on health, but the model resolution affects estimations. en_ZA
dc.description.department School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) en_ZA
dc.description.librarian pm2021 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Interreg Baltic Sea Region Program and Sahlgrenska University Hospital under the ALF agreement. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Mwase, N.S.; Ekström, A.; Jonson, J.E.; Svensson, E.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Wichmann, J.; Molnár, P.; Stockfelt, L. Health Impact of Air Pollution from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Effects of Different Spatial Resolutions in Sweden. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020, 17, 7963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217963 en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1660-4601 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3390/ijerph17217963
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/79895
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher MDPI en_ZA
dc.rights © 2020 by the authors. Licensee : MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. en_ZA
dc.subject Population exposure en_ZA
dc.subject Health effects en_ZA
dc.subject Myocardial infarction en_ZA
dc.subject Heart attack en_ZA
dc.subject Stroke en_ZA
dc.subject Air pollutants en_ZA
dc.subject Population exposure to particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) en_ZA
dc.subject Disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) en_ZA
dc.subject Sulfur emission control areas (SECAs) en_ZA
dc.subject Sulfur emission control area (SECA) en_ZA
dc.subject European monitoring evaluation programme (EMEP) en_ZA
dc.title Health impact of air pollution from shipping in the baltic sea : effects of different spatial resolutions in Sweden en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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