Recommendations for initial examination, differential diagnosis, and management of concussion and other head injuries in high-level football

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dc.contributor.author Feddermann-Demont, Nina
dc.contributor.author Chiampas, Georges
dc.contributor.author Cowie, Charlotte M.
dc.contributor.author Meyer, Tim
dc.contributor.author Nordström, Anna
dc.contributor.author Putukian, Margot
dc.contributor.author Straumann, Dominik
dc.contributor.author Kramer, Efraim B.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-04-13T14:09:53Z
dc.date.available 2021-04-13T14:09:53Z
dc.date.issued 2020-10
dc.description.abstract Head injuries can result in substantially different outcomes, ranging from no detectable effect to transient functional impairments to life-threatening structural lesions. In high-level international football (soccer) tournaments, on average, one head injury occurs in every third match. Making the diagnosis and determining the severity of a head injury immediately on-pitch or off-field is a major challenge for team physicians, especially because clinical signs of a brain injury can develop over several minutes, hours, or even days after the injury. A standardized approach is useful to support team physicians in their decision whether the player should be allowed to continue to play or should be removed from play after head injury. A systematic, football-specific procedure for examination and management during the first 72 hours after head injuries and a graduated Return-to-Football program for high-level players have been developed by an international group of experts based on current national and international guidelines for the management of acute head injuries. The procedure includes seven stages from the initial on-pitch examination to the graduated Return-to-Football program. Details of the assessments and the consequences of different outcomes are described for each stage. Criteria for emergency management (red flags), removal from play (orange flags), and referral to specialists for further diagnosis and treatment (persistent orange flags) are provided. The guidelines for return to sport after concussion-type head injury are specified for football. Thus, the present paper presents a comprehensive procedure for team physicians after a head injury in high-level football. en_ZA
dc.description.department Sports Medicine en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2021 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) en_ZA
dc.description.uri https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/16000838 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Feddermann-Demont, N., Chiampas, G., Cowie, C.M. et al. 2020, 'Recommendations for initial examination, differential diagnosis, and management of concussion and other head injuries in high-level football', Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1846-1858. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0905-7188 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1600-0838 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1111/sms.13750
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/79420
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Wiley en_ZA
dc.rights © 2020 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License. en_ZA
dc.subject Assessment en_ZA
dc.subject Examination en_ZA
dc.subject Head trauma en_ZA
dc.subject Signs and symptoms en_ZA
dc.subject Sports en_ZA
dc.title Recommendations for initial examination, differential diagnosis, and management of concussion and other head injuries in high-level football en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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