PURPOSE : Adolescent females aged 15–19 account for 62% of new HIV infections and give birth to
16 million infants annually. We quantify the risk of early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of
HIV among adolescents enrolled in nationally representative MTCT surveillance studies in South Africa.
METHODS : Data from 4,814 adolescent (≤19 years) and 25,453 adult (≥20 years) mothers and their
infants aged 4–8 weeks were analyzed. These data were gathered during three nationally representative,
cross-sectional, facility-based surveys, conducted in 2010, 2011–2012, and 2012–
2013. All infants were tested for HIV antibody (enzyme immunoassay), to determine HIV exposure.
Enzyme immunoassay-positive infants or those born to self-reported HIV-positive mothers were
tested for HIV infection (total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction). Maternal HIV positivity was
inferred from infant HIV antibody positivity. All analyses were weighted for sample realization
and population live births.
These data were presented as an oral presentation at the 7th South African AIDS Conference in Durban, 2015, and was accepted as a poster at the 8th International AIDS
Society Conference in Vancouver in 2015.