Inlet tube spacing and protrusion inlet effects on multiple circular tubes in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes

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dc.contributor.author Meyer, Josua P.
dc.contributor.author Everts, Marilize
dc.contributor.author Hall, Andrew T.C.
dc.contributor.author Mulock-Houwer, Franscois A.
dc.contributor.author Joubert, Martin
dc.contributor.author Pallent, Leslie M.J.
dc.contributor.author Vause, Erin S.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-12-06T06:09:58Z
dc.date.issued 2018-03
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate inlet tube spacing and protrusion effects on multiple circular tubes in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. An experimental set-up was built for this investigation and three configurations of test sections were investigated. The first was a single-tube test section for validation purposes, of which the results were compared with literature. The second was two multi-tube test sections with three tubes spaced at different pitches. The third configuration was similar to configuration two, except that the centre tube had a small protrusion. All the tubes had an inner diameter of 3.97 mm, and long tube lengths of 6 m were used to ensure fully developed flow. The tubes were electrically heated that ensured a constant heat flux heating condition. Water was used as the test fluid, and the Prandtl number varied between 3 and 7. The experiments were conducted at heat fluxes of 2, 3 and 4 kW/m2 for Reynolds numbers between 1000 and 7000, to ensure that the transitional flow regime, as well as sufficient parts of the laminar and turbulent flow regimes, were covered. The tubes were spaced apart from each other at 1.25, 1.4 and 1.5 times the outer tube diameter, and the protrusion of the centre tube was 10% of the tube inner diameter. It was found that an increased pitch ratio dampened the inlet disturbances in the centre tube and reduced the flow asymmetry in the side tubes, therefore the differences in the critical Reynolds numbers and transition gradients of the three tubes decreased. As the inlet disturbances were damped in the centre tube, transitional was delayed compared to a single tube with a square-edged inlet. For the side tubes, the increased flow asymmetry led to increased critical Reynolds numbers, as well as increased transition gradients. The presence of a protrusion inlet in the centre tube significantly increased the asymmetry of the flow in the side tubes, which led to an additional increase in the critical Reynolds numbers and the transition gradients increased. Free convection effects also led to increased critical Reynolds numbers and transition gradients, as well as decreased differences between the results of the tubes in the multi-tube set-up when a square-edged inlet was used. However, free convection effects were not able to dampen the inlet disturbances caused by a protrusion inlet in the centre tube. en_ZA
dc.description.department Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-03-30
dc.description.librarian hj2017 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The NRF, Stellenbosch University/University of Pretoria Solar Hub, CSIR, EEDSM Hub, RDP and NAC. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Meyer, J.P., Everts, M., Hall, A.T.C. et al. 2018, 'Inlet tube spacing and protrusion inlet effects on multiple circular tubes in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes', International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 118, pp. 257-274. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0017-9310 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1879-2189 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.10.125
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/63429
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 118, pp. 257-274, 2018. doi : 0.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.10.125. en_ZA
dc.subject Pitch en_ZA
dc.subject Shell and tube en_ZA
dc.subject Heat exchangers en_ZA
dc.subject Multiple tubes en_ZA
dc.subject Heat transfer coefficient en_ZA
dc.subject Friction factor en_ZA
dc.subject Tube spacing en_ZA
dc.subject Protrusion en_ZA
dc.subject Maldistribution en_ZA
dc.subject Inlet effects en_ZA
dc.subject Transition en_ZA
dc.subject Tubes (components) en_ZA
dc.subject Turbulent flow en_ZA
dc.subject Reynolds number en_ZA
dc.subject Prandtl number en_ZA
dc.subject Natural convection en_ZA
dc.subject Heat transfer en_ZA
dc.subject Heat flux en_ZA
dc.subject Heat exchangers en_ZA
dc.title Inlet tube spacing and protrusion inlet effects on multiple circular tubes in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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