Ultrastructural, confocal and viscoelastic characteristics of whole blood and plasma after exposure to cadmium and chromium alone and in combination : an ex vivo study

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dc.contributor.author Venter, Chantelle
dc.contributor.author Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena
dc.contributor.author Bester, Janette
dc.contributor.author Van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne
dc.contributor.author Bester, Megan Jean
dc.date.accessioned 2017-11-15T12:38:01Z
dc.date.available 2017-11-15T12:38:01Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS : Heavy metal pollution is increasing in the environment, contaminating water, food and air supplies. This can be linked to many anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals are absorbed through the skin, inhalation and/or orally. Irrespective of the manner of heavy metal entry in the body, the blood circulatory system is potentially the first to be affected following exposure and adverse effects on blood coagulation can lead to associated thrombotic disease. Although the plasma levels and the effects of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) on erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been described, the environmental exposure to heavy metals are not limited to a single metal and often involves metal mixtures, with each metal having different rates of absorption, different cellular, tissue, and organ targets. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the heavy metals Cd and Cr alone and whether Cr synergistically increases the effect of Cd on physiological important processes such as blood coagulation. METHODS : Human blood was exposed to the heavy metals ex vivo, and thereafter morphological analysis was performed with scanning electron- and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with thromboelastography®. RESULTS : The erythrocytes, platelets and fibrin networks presented with ultrastructural changes, including varied erythrocytes morphologies, activated platelets and significantly thicker fibrin fibres in the metal-exposed groups. CLSM analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the membranes of the spherocytic erythrocytes exposed to Cd and Cr alone and in combination. The viscoelastic analysis revealed only a trend that indicates that clots that will form after heavy metal exposure, will likely be fragile and unstable especially for Cd and Cr in combination. CONCLUSION : This study identified the blood as an important target system of Cd and Cr toxicity. en_ZA
dc.description.department Anatomy en_ZA
dc.description.department Physiology en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2017 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation (NRF) (Grant number: 92768). en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Venter, C., Oberholzer, H.M., Bester, J., Van Rooy, M.-J. & Bester, M.J. 2017, 'Ultrastructural, confocal and viscoelastic characteristics of whole blood and plasma after exposure to cadmium and chromium alone and in combination : an ex vivo study', Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, pp. 1288-1300. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1015-8987 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1421-9778 (online)
dc.identifier.issn 10.1159/000481841
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/63179
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Karger Publishers Open Access en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). en_ZA
dc.subject Heavy metals en_ZA
dc.subject Erythrocytes en_ZA
dc.subject Fibrin fibres en_ZA
dc.subject Platelets en_ZA
dc.subject Thromboelastography en_ZA
dc.subject Confocal microscopy en_ZA
dc.subject Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) en_ZA
dc.subject Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) en_ZA
dc.subject cadmium (Cd) en_ZA
dc.subject Chromium (Cr) en_ZA
dc.title Ultrastructural, confocal and viscoelastic characteristics of whole blood and plasma after exposure to cadmium and chromium alone and in combination : an ex vivo study en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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