The attributable fraction (AF) of influenza virus detection to illness has not been described for patients in different age groups or with different HIV infection statuses. We compared the age group–specific prevalence of influenza virus infection among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute or chronic respiratory illness (SARI and SCRI, respectively) with that among controls, stratified by HIV serostatus. The overall AF for influenza virus detection to illness was 92.6% for ILI, 87.4% for SARI, and 86.2% for SCRI. Among HIV-uninfected patients, the AF for all syndromes was highest among persons <1 and >65 years of age and lowest among persons 25–44 years of age; this trend was not observed among HIV-infected patients. Overall, influenza viruses when detected in patients with ILI, SARI, or SCRI are likely attributable to illness. This finding is particularly likely among children and the elderly irrespective of HIV serostatus and among HIV-infected persons irrespective of age.