We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abu-ser–abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F: M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser–abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser–abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher’s exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the pre-sence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by inti-mate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.