OBJECTIVE : This report presents data from four studies to examine standard bone-conduction reference equivalent threshold force levels (RETFL), especially at 4 kHz where anomalous air-bone gaps are common. DESIGN : Data were mined from studies that obtained air- and bone-conduction thresholds from normal-hearing and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) participants, using commercial audiometers and standard audiometric transducers. STUDY SAMPLE : There were 249 normal-hearing and 188 SNHL participants. RESULTS : (1) Normal-hearing participants had small air-bone gaps at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz (-1.7 to 0.3 dB) and larger air-bone gaps at 4 kHz (10.6 dB). (2) SNHL participants had small air-bone gaps at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz (-0.7 to 1.7 dB) and a larger air-bone gap at 4 kHz (14.1 dB). (3) The 4-kHz air-bone gap grew with air-conduction threshold from 10.1 dB when the air-conduction threshold was 5-10 dB HL to 21.1 dB when the air-conduction threshold was greater than 60 dB. (4) With the 4-kHz RETFL corrected by the average SNHL air-bone gap, the relationship between RETFL and frequency is linear with a slope of - 12 dB per octave. CONCLUSIONS : The 4-kHz air-bone gaps for listeners with SNHL could be avoided by adjusting the 4-kHz RETFL by - 14.1 dB.