Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disease primarily affecting the spine. However, it is also associated with the ossification/calcification of tendon, ligament, and capsule insertions (entheses) occurring at multiple peripheral sites. The etiology of the condition is unknown, as the name suggests (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), although some correlations with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and age have been noted. Clinical diagnostic criteria have been adapted for paleopathological assessment of archeological skeletal remains, revealing some interesting patterns between monastic and lay populations; showing a higher incidence of DISH among individuals buried in monastic cemeteries. Although fascinating, the mechanisms behind this difference in prevalence are still not fully understood and have been attributed to the relatively richer diets of the monks and priests. The development of diagnostic criteria, where early stage cases of DISH can be identified as well as a better understanding of its causes, is paramount to the prevention of this potentially debilitating condition and perhaps this is where paleopathologists can assist. The use of dry bone rather than living patients for detailed assessment means that paleopathologists are less restricted by the techniques they can use in their investigations and the condition's occurrence in various archeological assemblages can provide interesting insights into its etiology.