Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac

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dc.contributor.author Galligan, T.H.
dc.contributor.author Taggart, M. A.
dc.contributor.author Cuthbert, R. J.
dc.contributor.author Svobodova, D.
dc.contributor.author Chipangura, J.K. (John)
dc.contributor.author Alderson, D.
dc.contributor.author Prakash, V. M.
dc.contributor.author Naidoo, Vinny
dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-18T09:20:58Z
dc.date.issued 2016-10
dc.description.abstract The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is highly toxic to Gyps vultures and its recent widespread use in South Asia caused catastrophic declines in at least three scavenging raptors. The manufacture of veterinary formulations of diclofenac has since been banned across the region with mixed success. However, at least 12 other NSAIDs are available for veterinary use in South Asia. Aceclofenac is one of these compounds and it is known to metabolise into diclofenac in some mammal species. The metabolic pathway of aceclofenac in cattle, the primary food of vultures in South Asia, is unknown. In this study, we give six cattle the recommended dose of aceclofenac (2 mg/kg), collect blood along a time series and undertake a pharmacokinetic analysis of aceclofenac and diclofenac-metabolites in their plasma using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. We found that nearly all of the aceclofenac administered to the cattle was very rapidly metabolised into diclofenac. Therefore, treating livestock with pure diclofenac or aceclofenac poses the same risk to vultures. This fact, coupled with the risk that aceclofenac may replace diclofenac in the veterinary market, fortifies the need for an immediate ban on all aceclofenac formulations that can be used to treat livestock. Without such a ban, the recovery of vultures across South Asia will not be successful. en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2017-10-31
dc.description.librarian hb2016 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship This study was largely funded by the RSPB Centre for Conversation Science. In addition, SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services receives funding from the Scottish Government through the Veterinary and Advisory Services (VAS) programme. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1523-1739 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Galligan, TH, Taggart, MA, Cuthbert, RJ, Svobodova, D, Chipangura, J, Alderson, D, Prakash, VM & Naidoo, V 2016, 'Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac', Conservation Biology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1122-1127. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0888-8892 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1523-1739 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1111/cobi.1271
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/57343
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Wiley en_ZA
dc.rights © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article : Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac, Conservation Biology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1122-1127, 2016. doi : 10.1111/cobi.12711. The definite version is available at : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.comjournal/10.1111/(ISSN)1523-1739. en_ZA
dc.subject Gyps en_ZA
dc.subject Ecotoxicology en_ZA
dc.subject Pharmacokinetics en_ZA
dc.subject Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs en_ZA
dc.subject Vulture declines en_ZA
dc.subject Threats to vultures en_ZA
dc.subject Pharmaceuticals in the environment en_ZA
dc.subject Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) en_ZA
dc.title Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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