Many ceasefires have failed to reach a durable settlement as a result of spoiling by parties who perceive the emerging peace as a threat to their interests. Creating long-lasting peace after a prolonged armed conflict is a complex process because durable settlements often depend on sustained third-party intervention from the negotiation stage to the implementation stage. Throughout the peacebuilding process the third party acts as a driver, helping the disputants to reach a negotiated solution. The success of the mediator is determined by various determinants, most importantly that mediation strategies must reflect the reality of the conflict, the expectations of the disputants and the ability to deflect spoiler tactics. Spoilers who deliberately derail the peace making (negotiation of an agreement) and / or peacekeeping (implementation of the agreement) processes is an important reason for the failure of most peace processes.
Mozambique emerged from a post-independent civil war and a peace making process characterised by third-party mediation. The first phase of the mediation process started in 1990 in Rome under the auspices of the church of Sant Egidio and culminated in a General Peace Agreement (GPA) in 1992. The second phase involved the deployment of the United Nations Observation Mission for Mozambique (UNOMOZ) peacekeeping force to oversee the implementation of the GPA. The mediation in Mozambique from 1990-1994 showed that the transnational network of the Roman Catholic Church provided a framework for peace making and it was acceptable to all warring parties because it maintained its credibility and moral legitimacy in this war-torn country.
Although successful, the Mozambican mediation process had its own challenges, including serious spoiler behaviour by parties within the process. The identification of spoilers and the determination of their motives, behaviour and tactics enabled the mediator to devise strategies for dealing with them.
Mini Dissertation (MA)--University of Pretoria, 2016.