Gross, histological and ultrastructural findings are described in 6 natural cases and in 2 experimental cases of African horsesickness. From the gross lesions the cases were divisible into 2 groups which represented the previously described pulmonary and mixed forms of the disease. Histologically, abundance of fibrin and inflammatory cells in oedematous lung suggests that the pulmonary lesion is an exudative pneumonia. Lymphoid depletion and necrosis in germinal centres were consistently present. Electron microscopy failed to demonstrate virus particles or virus-associated structures in the tissues. Ultrastructural evidence of vascular injury was not apparent in oedematous tissues. Possible mechanisms in the development of the lung oedema are considered and a comparison is made with oedema induced by alpha-naphthyl-thiourea. Lack of structural evidence of vascular injury revealed by this study extends some hope for therapy in African horsesickness.
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