All of the 111 baboons examined from the Loskop Dam, Suikerbosrand and Scrutton Nature Reserves and the Sabie-Tweefontein Forest Reserve were infested with helminths of the digestive tract. The helminths recovered were Bertiella studeri, Enterobius vermicularis, Oesophagostomum bifurcum, Physaloptera caucasica, Streptopharagus pigmentatus, Strongyloides fülleborni, Trichostrongylus falculatus, Trichuris trichiura and females of Trichuris which possibly belong to a new species. Most baboons harboured 3, and some as many as 6, species of helminths. Burdens of the various helminths varied greatly, even among baboons from the same locality, age group and sex. All helminths found in the present study can occur in very young animals. Worm burdens generally increased as the host aged, with a subsequent decrease among adult baboons for Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichostrongylus falculatus. Heavier worm burdens were found in the wet season for Bertiella studeri and Oesophagostomum bifurcum, whereas Trichostrongylus falculatus occurred in greater numbers during the dry season. No significant differences between worm burdens in male and female baboons were found, but Physaloptera caucasica was more prevalent in males. Trichostrongylus falculatus and Enterobius vermicularis are new records for the chacma baboon.
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