Doctors use various guidelines on paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) for managing their patients according to the availability of
resources. As with adolescent and adult patients, CKD in children can also progress to end-stage renal failure – the time course being
influenced by several modifiable factors. Decline in renal failure is best categorised in stages, which determine management and prognosis.
Staging is based on three categories, i.e. cause, glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. Early diagnosis of CKD allows for the institution
of renoprotective treatment of modifiable factors and treatment to prevent the development of complications. The two most important
modifiable factors that can be treated successfully are hypertension and proteinuria.
The objective of this article is to provide information on the diagnosis and treatment of CKD in children. Early identification and
treatment of modifiable risk factors of CKD decreases the burden of disease and delays or prevents the need for renal replacement therapy.