Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle

Show simple item record Botha, C.J. (Christoffel Jacobus) Lessing, Dries Rosemann, G.M. (Gertruida Magdalena) Van Wilpe, Erna Williams, J.H. (June Heather) 2014-10-21T11:15:07Z 2014-10-21T11:15:07Z 2014-07-10
dc.description.abstract Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as “cocklebur,” rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS. en_US
dc.description.librarian am2014 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation, South Africa en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Botha, CJ, Lessing, D, Rösemann, M, Van Wilpe, E & Williams, JH 2014, 'Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle', Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 640-645. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1040-6387 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1943-4936 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1177/1040638714542867
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Sage en_US
dc.rights © 2014 The Author(s) en_US
dc.subject Bovine en_US
dc.subject Carboxyatractyloside analysis en_US
dc.subject Cocklebur en_US
dc.subject Hepatotoxicity en_US
dc.subject Xanthium spp. en_US
dc.title Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle en_US
dc.type Article en_US

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record