The safe and successful performance of a central venous catheterization (CVC) requires a specific knowledge of anatomy in addition to a working knowledge. Misunderstanding the anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review aims to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of CVC of the subclavian (SCV). CVC is common practice amongst surgeons, anesthesiologists, and emergency room physicians during the preparations for major surgical procedures such as open-heart surgery, as well as, for intensive care monitoring and rapid restoration of blood volume. Associated with this technique are certain anatomical pitfalls and complications that can be successfully avoided if one possesses a thorough knowledge of the contraindications, regional anatomy, and rationale of the technique.