Against the background of frequent organizational changes and restructuring, often based on impulsive decisions rather than structured feasibility studies or evaluations, this study examines the nature and influence of management on the performance of the Ethiopian public extension service. Based on a survey of 353 respondents from Oromia region, one of the nine regions in Ethiopia, representing various agro-ecological zones and managerial positions, the study examines the current level of organizational performance, the influence of the 2002 restructuring on organizational performance and the factors influencing the organizational effectiveness. The knowledge of these influences is important for improving the current and future design of organizational change and development practices. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) how efficiently is the Oromia Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development currently functioning? (2) what is the current situation of Oromia Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development regarding managerial efficiency level and the application of improved management practices? (3) are there any differences between before and after 2002 organizational restructuring in terms of improvements in organizational performance? (4) what are the factors that currently influence, (enhance or restrain) the organizational and managerial functioning of OBARD? (5) are there any variations regarding assessed organizational and managerial performance between various categories of respondents? The findings show that the current organizational efficiency is low. The effect of the 2002 restructuring on organizational performance was negligible and mixed. The organizational performance was influenced by various factors. The most critical factors found to influence organizational performance were skilled manpower, availability of accommodation/offices, extension teaching aids; farmers’ willingness, collaborations between institutions, government policy and regulations and political forces. These findings can be useful in assisting managers in their endeavours to correct the weaknesses and to focus on the most critical issues for the improvement of organizational performance. Finally, this study raises issues that need policy and managerial interventions and have implications for further research.