Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction materials : a comparative analysis of three South African Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) stations

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dc.contributor.author Hugo, Jan
dc.contributor.author Stoffberg, Hennie
dc.contributor.author Barker, A.A.J. (Arthur Adrian Johnson)
dc.date.accessioned 2013-05-24T11:41:30Z
dc.date.available 2013-05-24T11:41:30Z
dc.date.issued 2012-12
dc.description Previously published as Acta Structilia : Scientific Magazine of the Departments : Architecture, Quantity Surveying and Construction Management, Town and Urban Planning, [University of the Orange Free State]. en
dc.description ‘Cradle to gate’ includes the extraction of raw materials, transportation and processing to the point where the product leaves the factory. en
dc.description.abstract This article investigates the role that architecture can play in mitigating climate change by comparing the environmental impact of construction material use in two existing South African Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) stations in Johannesburg and Cape Town and a proposed BRT station for Tshwane. The article will generate guidelines to improve the resource efficiency of future BRT trunk-route stations. The climate change mitigation potential of BRT stations has been determined by analysing their carbon footprint and embodied energy over the cradle to gate1 period. The quantity of construction material used in each station was calculated, while the carbon footprint intensity and embodied energy intensity were determined by means of the Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) carbon and embodied energy calculator. Calculations of embodied energy of structural systems and material use reveal that the Cape Town station is 36.5% more efficient in terms of carbon footprint intensity and embodied energy intensity than the Johannesburg station and 23.2% more efficient than the Tshwane station. The station base is the most energy-intensive component, contributing an average of 38% to the total embodied energy. It was concluded that steel contributes more than 50% to the total carbon footprint and embodied energy of each station. The analysis determines that lower scaled, spatially economical structures using low embodied energy materials will positively contribute to reduced carbon footprints and thus climate change mitigation strategies. The outcomes of the article also set a benchmark for prospective life-cycle assessments (LCA) and establish design guidelines for the design of future BRT stations. en
dc.description.abstract Hierdie artikel spreek die rol van argitektuur in die mitigasie van klimaatsverandering aan. Deur te fokus op die konstruksiemateriaalverbruik van twee bestaande Suid-Afrikaanse 'Bus Rapid Transit' (BRT)-stasies in Johannesburg en Kaapstad en 'n voorgestelde BRT-stasie vir Tshwane, vergelyk die artikel die omgewingsimpak van elke stasie. Die artikel fokus daarop om riglyne vir energie- en hulpbronverbruikdoeltreffende BRT stasies te identifiseer. Die klimaatsveranderingmitigasie potensiaal van argitektuur is gekwantifiseer deur die stasies se koolstofinhoud en ingeslote energie vanaf die 'cradle to gate' periode te analiseer. Deur die hoeveelhede konstruksiemateriaalverbruik in elke stasie te bereken en gebruik te maak van die 'Inventory of Carbon & Energy' (ICE) is die koolstofinhoud en ingeslote energie-intensiteite van die elke stasie blootgelê. Die navorsing op die ingeslote energie van die struktuur en materiaalgebruik dui daarop dat die Kaapstad-stasie die beste vaar in terme van energie-intensiteit deur 36.5% meer hulpbronverbruikdoeltreffend te wees as die Johannesburgstasie en 23.2 % as die Tshwane-stasie. Terwyl die stasie basis as mees energie-intensiewe komponent gemiddeld 38% bydra tot die totale ingeslote energie, is staal as die mees energie-ondoeltreffende materiaal geïdentifiseer. Staal dra meer as 50% by tot die totale koolstofinhoud en ingeslote energie. Hierdie artikel kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat kleiner skaal, ruimtelikdoeltreffende strukture wat lae ingeslote energiemateriaal gebruik, lei tot strukture met laerkoolstofinhoud wat kan bydra tot klimaatsveranderingmitigasiestrategieë. Die gevolgtrekkings in hierdie artikel poog om 'n vergelykbare basislyn te stel vir toekomstige lewenssiklusanalises en terselfdertyd ontwerpbeginsels vir die ontwerp van voornemende BRT-stasies te bied. af
dc.description.librarian am2013 en
dc.description.librarian ai2013 en
dc.description.sponsorship Jan Hugo would like to thank the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) for sponsoring this project. en
dc.description.uri http://www.uovs.ac.za/faculties/content.php?id=5174&FCode=04&DCode=115 en
dc.identifier.citation Hugo, J, Stoffberg, H & Barker, A 2012, 'Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction materials : a comparative analysis of three South African Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) stations', Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 21-45. en
dc.identifier.issn 1023-0564
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/21538
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher The Physical Development Sciences, University of the Free State en
dc.rights The Physical Development Sciences, University of the Free State en
dc.subject Carbon footprint en
dc.subject Climate change en
dc.subject Construction materials en
dc.subject Embodied energy en
dc.subject Life-cycle analyses en
dc.subject Resource consumption en
dc.subject Hulpbronverbruik af
dc.subject Ingeslote energie af
dc.subject Klimaatsverandering af
dc.subject Konstruksiematerial af
dc.subject Koolstofinhoud af
dc.subject Lewenssiklusanalise af
dc.subject.lcsh Building materials -- Service life -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Bus rapid transit -- Environmental aspects -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Bus terminals -- Environmental aspects -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Building materials -- Environmental aspects -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Climate change mitigation -- South Africa en
dc.title Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction materials : a comparative analysis of three South African Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) stations en
dc.type Article en


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