Neonatal mortality constitutes approximately 40% of all under-five deaths. In order to achieve Millennium Developmental
Goal 4 (MDG 4) by 2015, a drastic intervention is required. Empowering medical personnel in rural areas to improve care in
certain critical neonatal conditions might result in a much-needed reduction in neonatal mortality. The most common causes
of neonatal mortality are prematurity, birth asphyxia, infections and congenital anomalies. This review article highlights the
newest neonatal resuscitation guidelines, as well as evidence-based management of neonatal encephalopathy, meconium
aspiration syndrome, prematurity-related conditions and common neonatal infections. By implementing simple costeffective
improvements in neonatal care, neonatal mortality can be reduced, and ultimately, MDG 4 can be reached.