Botswana imports most pig-based products from neighbouring countries. Pig farming is limited by, among other things, the negative effect of parasites and diseases on production. The object of this study was to determine the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in the Southeast District of Botswana. Thirty-nine pigs were sampled for endoparasites and 19 for ectoparasites during a period of 2 1/2 months. Of all the pigs sampled, 54,55% were infected with Ascaris suum, 20,45 % with Trichostrongylus spp. and 6,82 % with Trichuris suis. Ascaris suum was found to be the most common endoparasite infesting both mature, i.e. 12 months and older, and young, i.e. less than 12 months old, pigs. Although not significantly different (P > 0,05), the prevalence of this parasite species was slightly higher (68,42 % with an average of 1 023 ± 545 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces per pig) in mature than in young pigs (55 % with an average of 1 500 ± 846 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus spp. was lower in mature (5,26% with 20 ± 14 EPG of faeces per pig) than in young pigs (25 % with 22 ± 9 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of T. suis was also lower in mature (0 % infection) than in young pigs (15 % with 9 ± 4 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of the three endoparasite species was not significantly different between the sexes A. suum (1 020 ± 883 v. 1 503 ± 522 EPG of faeces per pig), Trichostrongylus spp. (24 ± 14 v. 18 ± 8 EPG of faeces per pig) and T. suis (11 ± 6 v. 2 ± 4 EPG of faeces per pig) for male and female pigs respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only ectoparasite identified on the pigs sampled for external parasites. It infested 40 % of all pigs but the infestation on young pigs (70 %) was higher than on the mature ones (33,33 %). Since the infection of internal and external parasites was similar in young and old pigs of both sexes, controlling parasites is of great importance since these generally lead to reduced production and are also of public health concern . It is recommended that a further study be carried out to investigate the effect of internal and external parasites on productivity.
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