A NAD-dependent isolate 46 (C-3) of Haemophilus paragallinarum, which was previously demonstrated to be of high virulence, was transformed to NAD independence using a plasmid isolated from a naturally occurring NAD-independent isolate of H. paragallinarum. The transformation was performed by two different methods and the identity of all of the isolates, before and after transformation was confirmed using a H. paragallinarum-specific PCR test. The transformed NAD-independent serovar C-3 isolate and the wild-type serovar C-3 isolate were used to experimentally infect vaccinated layer chickens. It was shown that the transformation to NAD independence significantly altered the virulence of the serovar C-3 isolate that was used in the transformation experiment. The mechanisms responsible for a decrease in virulence are not clear, but may be related to the pathology of the transformed isolate in the sinus of the chickens.
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