The successful identification of human skeletal remains relies on proven diagnostic
techniques for sex determination. This research utilized 608 individuals from South Africa (420
males, 188 females) to conduct a blind non-metric determination of sex from three features of the
distal humerus; olecranon fossa shape, angle of the medial epicondyle, and trochlear extention.
A scoring system between males and females was implemented, and the aggregate score of the
three features determined the estimated sex of the skeletal element in question. With all features
combined, black and white South Africans were categorized successfully as either male or
female 75.5% (77% accuracy rate for females, 74% accuracy rate for males). This classification
rate is lower than what was found in previous studies, but suggests that characteristics of the
distal humerus are still quite valuable when estimating skeletal sex. More research is needed to
assess reasons for the differential expression of these traits in different populations, and to
determine if the method is non-population-specific.