The ecumenical marks of the church – unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity – have served
it well as defining characteristics since the 4th century CE. The Reformation required that they
be redefined in a particular context in terms of the soundness of doctrine preached, celebration
of the sacraments and the exercise of discipline. In the 21st century these ecumenical marks
are still relevant not only within an ecclesiastical context but in society using Koffeman’s
quality markers of these marks – conciliarity, integrity, inclusivity and authenticity.