Engineered nanoparticles are designed to perform specific functions and therefore have specific properties that
could potentially be harmful. Nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide have the potential to become transparent and are therefore widely
used in cosmetic products and sunscreen. Research on the toxicity of nanoparticles is of utmost importance and numerous in vitro studies
have shown that some of these particles could have adverse health effects. The current study aimed to investigate the in vivo effects of
two different titanium nanoparticles at two different concentrations after inhalation by experimental BALB/c mice. This was done to
determine whether these particles will cause an inflammatory reaction, visible as alterations in platelet and fibrin ultrastructure. Mice
were divided into five experimental groups comprising of a control group, high and low concentration groups exposed to the sphericalshaped
particles, as well as high and low concentration groups exposed to the rod-shaped particles. The ultrastructure of the fibrin
networks and platelet aggregates of these experimental groups were investigated and compared to that of controls. Results indicated that
the fibrin networks of the exposed animals have a net-like covering over the major fibres, typical to that found in animals with inflammation.
It can therefore be concluded that the nanoparticles used in this study may have the potential to cause an inflammatory reaction, affecting
the haemostatic physiology.