The study investigates the habitat preferences and ecological adaptations of the klipspringer in the Namaqualand and the southern Cape mountains. Klipspringer social organisation was found· to consist of a monogamously mated pair defending a territory which varies in size according to rainfall. The pair bond is very strong and role differentiation occurs, with the male spending more time than the female in anti-predator vigilance. Anatomical and physiological adaptations include a modified digit structure, kidneys with a high concentrating ability, and a unique pelage for insulation. Seasonal variations in activity patterns and feeding preferences are discussed in relation to weather conditions, metabolic requirements and possible plant defensive mechanisms. Klipspringers avoid competition with other small antelope by preferring more rocky terrain, and possible methods of food separation from dassies are suggested. The significance of all these factors in relation to the conservation and management of klipspringer populations is examined.