Relationships among the historically isolated lineages of Pseudobarbus were reconstructed using molecular and morphological data. Contradictions between the molecular and morphological phylogenies suggest convergent evolution and homoplasy in some morphological characters. The earliest divergence in Pseudobarbus was between P. quathlambae in Lesotho and the rest of the genus associated with the Cape
Foristic Region in South Africa. A close relationship between P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa and a lineage of P. afer from small river systems in Afrotemperate Forests
on the south coast, can only be explained through previous occurrence and subsequent extinction of ancestral populations in the Gourits River system. Several river systems had confluences before reaching lower sea levels, most notably during the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago, explaining closely related populations across different river systems. Mainly river capture explains shared lineages across river systems that did not share a common confluence during lower sea levels.