Holstein cattle of small scale dairy production systems were screened for Brucella abortus antibodies in 21 villages in Cameroon by ELISA. Results show a general seroprevalence of 8.4% in Holstein cattle. Of the 192 cows tested, 14 were infected giving a within-sex seroprevalence of 7.3% while 6/74 bulls were infected with a seroprevalence of 8%. There was no evidence (P=0.11) of differences in seroprevalence between age groups although animals above one year and below three years accounted for nearly half of the infected animals. 64% of infected animals were found in three locations (P=0.015): Kutaba (32%), Bamendankwe (16%) and Finge (16%). A specific control programme should be organized at these locations. Measures should be taken to ensure the eradication of the disease within the population and sound control measures adopted to avoid a further spread of the disease to larger cattle populations. Infected animals should be slaughtered systematically. All farmers should be advised to boil milk before consumption. Vaccination against Brucella abortus should be instituted and use of artificial insemination propagated. In order to ensure a productive and healthy population of Holstein cows within the dairy production scheme, regular Brucella testing should be instituted.