Show simple item record Botha, C.J. (Christoffel Jacobus) Venter, Elna
dc.contributor.other University of Pretoria. Faculty of Veterinary Science. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences. Section Pharmacology and Toxicology
dc.coverage.spatial Africa en
dc.coverage.spatial South Africa en 2009-02-19T07:29:59Z 2009-02-19T07:29:59Z 2002
dc.description Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG, 72 ppi. Photo 1: 9.7 kb; Photo 2: 19.5 kb; Photo 3: 15.1 kb; Photo 4: 19.8 kb; Photo 5: 18.9 kb; Photo 6: 18.3 kb. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria. en
dc.description.abstract DISTRIBUTION: Mostly to be found in the drier regions of the country, along the coast, etc. Also cultivated as garden subject. en
dc.description.abstract BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: Succulent plants with round, finger-like leaves, typical pericarp with attractive flowers. en
dc.description.abstract TOXIC PRINCIPLE: Contains soluble oxalates. en
dc.description.abstract SYNDROMES: Soluble oxalate poisoning, Primary nephropathy. en
dc.description.abstract SYSTEMS AFFECTED: Urogenital system. en
dc.description.abstract CLINICAL SIGNS: Acute poisoning: • Hypocalcaemia phase: -soon after intake, 2-6 hours - Weakness - Paresis to paralysis, semi-comatose, “milk fever” signs. - Head thrown back onto shoulder - Bradycardia - Mortalities Treatment of these symptoms with Ca-borogluconate gives good results and animals may recover. • Kidney failure phase: Following day to few days later due to blockage and damage of tubuli by Ca-oxalate crystals resulting in: - Uraemia: BUN and creatinine increase - Oliguria or anuria Treatment of very little value - irreversible condition. en
dc.description.abstract EPIDEMIOLOGY: • Acute poisoning happens where: - unadapted animals suddenly eat a relatively large amount of oxalate containing plants and the oxalates are absorbed into the circulation - excessive large amounts of oxalates are absorbed in adapted animals which are not able to detoxify all the oxalates in the rumen (e.g. large amounts during droughts) • Chronic effect characterized by: Calcium deficiency resulting in: - bone abnormality, - poor milk production and - poor growth. N.B. Kidney- and bladder stones where oxalates can play a role amongst other things. en
dc.description.abstract NECROPSY: Macroscopical findings: • Hypocalcaemia: - Nothing significant, - haemorrhages. • Nephrosis and Uraemia: - Ascites, hydrothorax, perirenal and subcutaneous oedema. - Kidneys pale, oedematous, swollen - nephrosis. - Ammonia and urea odour (uraemia). - Haemorrhages in different organs. - Oedema and haemorrhages in rumen. en
dc.description.abstract HISTOPATHOLOGY: Typical oxalate crystals in kidney tubules (seen under polarized light) with signs of kidney damage. en
dc.description.abstract TREATMENT: Control: • Avoid sudden exposure to oxalate containing plants or intake of large quantities • Avoid oxalate containing plants as the only food. • Feed Ca2+ in the form of dicalcium phosphate as a lick (25% or more with salt) or mixed in the supplementary feed. en
dc.description.uri en
dc.identifier.citation Botha, CJ & Venter, E 2002, 'Plants poisonous to livestock Southern Africa (CD-ROM)' University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pretoria, South Africa. en
dc.rights ©University of Pretoria. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology (Original and digital). Provided for educational purposes only. It may not be downloaded, reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the original copyright holder. Any attempt to circumvent the access controls placed on this file is a violation of copyright laws and is subject to criminal prosecution. Please contact the collection administrator for copyright issues. en
dc.source Original format: University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science. en
dc.subject Plant poisoning en
dc.subject Toxicology en
dc.subject Plant poisoning in animals en
dc.subject Poisonous plants en
dc.subject Soluble oxalate en
dc.subject Nephropathy en
dc.subject.lcsh Poisonous plants -- Toxicology -- Africa, Southern en
dc.subject.lcsh Veterinary toxicology en
dc.title Mesembryanthemaceae en
dc.title.alternative Lampranthus species en
dc.title.alternative Carpobrotus species en
dc.title.alternative Mesembryanthemum species en
dc.title.alternative Mesems af
dc.title.alternative Vygies af
dc.type Still Image en

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