First M87 event horizon telescope results. VIII. Magnetic field structure near the event horizon

Show simple item record Akiyama, Kazunori Algaba, Juan Carlos Alberdi, Antxon Alef, Walter Anantua, Richard Asada, Keiichi Azulay, Rebecca Baczko, Anne-Kathrin Ball, David Balokovic, Mislav Barrett, John Benson, Bradford A. Bintley, Dan Blackburn, Lindy Blundell, Raymond Boland, Wilfred Bouman, Katherine L. Bower, Geoffrey C. Boyce, Hope Bremer, Michael Brinkerink, Christiaan D. Brissenden, Roger Britzen, Silke Broderick, Avery E. Broguiere, Dominique Bronzwaer, Thomas Byun, Do-Young Carlstrom, John E. Chael, Andrew Chan, Chi-kwan Chatterjee, Shami Chatterjee, Koushik Chen, Ming-Tang Chen, Yongjun Chesler, Paul M. Cho, Ilje Christian, Pierre Conway, John E. Cordes, James M. Crawford, Thomas M. Crew, Geoffrey B. Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro Cui, Yuzhu Davelaar, Jordy De Laurentis, Mariafelicia Deane, Roger Dempsey, Jessica Desvignes, Gregory Dexter, Jason Doeleman, Sheperd S. Eatough, Ralph P. Falcke, Heino Farah, Joseph R. Fish, Vincent L. Fomalont, Ed Ford, H. Alyson Fraga-Encinas, Raquel Friberg, Per Fromm, Christian M Fuentes, Antonio Galison, Peter Gammie, Charles F. Garcia, Roberto Gelles, Zachary Zachary Gelles Georgiev, Boris Goddi, Ciriaco Goddi, Ciriaco Gomez, Jose L. Gomez-Ruiz, Arturo I. Gu, Minfeng Gurwell, Mark Hada, Kazuhiro Haggard, Daryl Hecht, Michael H. Himwich, Elizabeth Ho, Luis C. Ho, Paul Honma, Mareki Huang, Chih-Wei L. Huang, Lei Hughes, David H. Ikeda, Shiro Inoue, Makoto Issaoun, Sara James, David J. Jannuzi, Buell T. Janssen, Michael Jeter, Britton Jiang, Wu Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra Johnson, Michael D. Jorstad, Svetlana Jung, Taehyun Karami, Mansour Karuppusamy, Ramesh Kawashima, Tomohisa Keating, Garrett K. Kettenis, Mark Kim, Dong-Jin Kim, Jae-Young Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Junhan Kino, Motoki Koay, Jun Yi Kofuji, Yutaro Koch, Patrick M. Koyama, Shoko Kramer, Michael Kramer, Carsten Krichbaum, Thomas P. Kuo, Cheng-Yu Lauer, Tod R. Lee, Sang-Sung Levis, Aviad Li, Yan-Rong Li, Zhiyuan Lindqvist, Michael Lico, Rocco Lindahl, Greg Liu, Jun Liu, Kuo Liuzzo, Elisabetta Lo, Wen-Ping Lobanov, Andrei P. Loinard, Laurent Lonsdale, Colin Lu, Ru-Sen MacDonald, Nicholas R. Mao, Jirong Marchili, Nicola Markoff, Sera Marrone, Daniel P. Marscher, Alan P. Marti-Vidal, Ivan Matsushita, Satoki Matthews, Lynn D. Medeiros, Lia Menten, Karl M. Mizuno, Izumi Mizuno, Yosuke Moran, James M. Moriyama, Kotaro Moscibrodzka, Monika Muller, Cornelia Musoke, Gibwa Mus Mejías, Alejandro Michalik, Daniel Nadolski, Andrew Nagai, Hiroshi Nagar, Neil M. Nakamura, Masanori Narayan, Ramesh Narayanan, Gopal Natarajan, Iniyan Nathanail, Antonios Neilsen, Joey Neri, Roberto Ni, Chunchong Noutsos, Aristeidis Nowak, Michael A. Okino, Hiroki Olivares, Hector Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N. Oyama, Tomoaki Ozel, Feryal Palumbo, Daniel C.M. Park, Jongho Patel, Nimesh Pen, Ue-Li Pesce, Dominic W. Pietu, Vincent Plambeck, Richard PopStefanija, Aleksandar Porth, Oliver Potzl, Felix M. Prather, Ben Preciado-Lopez, Jorge A. Psaltis, Dimitrios Pu, Hung-Yi Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh Rao, Ramprasad Rawlings, Mark G. Raymond, Alexander W. Rezzolla, Luciano Ricarte, Angelo Ripperda, Bart Roelofs, Freek Rogers, Alan Ros, Eduardo Rose, Mel Roshanineshat, Arash Rottmann, Helge Roy, Alan L. Ruszczyk, Chet Rygl, Kazi L.J. Sanchez, Salvador Sanchez-Arguelles, David Sasada, Mahito Savolainen, Tuomas Schloerb, F. Peter Schuster, Karl-Friedrich Shao, Lijing Shen, Zhiqiang Small, Des Sohn, Bong Won SooHoo, Jason Sun, He Tazaki, Fumie Tetarenko, Alexandra J. Tiede, Paul Tilanus, Remo P.J. Titus, Michael Toma, Kenji Torne, Pablo Trent, Tyler Traianou, Efthalia Trippe, Sascha Van Bemmel, Ilse Van Langevelde, Huib Jan Van Rossum, Daniel R. Wagner, Jan Ward-Thompson, Derek Wardle, John Weintroub, Jonathan Wex, Norbert Wharton, Robert Wielgus, Maciek Wong, George N. Wu, Qingwen Yoon, Doosoo Young, Andre Young, Ken Younsi, Ziri Yuan, Feng Yuan, Ye-Fei Zensus, J. Anton Zhao, Guangyao Zhao, Shan-Shan 2022-07-11T08:57:47Z 2022-07-11T08:57:47Z 2021
dc.description.abstract Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz have now imaged polarized emission around the supermassive black hole in M87 on event-horizon scales. This polarized synchrotron radiation probes the structure of magnetic fields and the plasma properties near the black hole. Here we compare the resolved polarization structure observed by the EHT, along with simultaneous unresolved observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, to expectations from theoretical models. The low fractional linear polarization in the resolved image suggests that the polarization is scrambled on scales smaller than the EHT beam, which we attribute to Faraday rotation internal to the emission region. We estimate the average density ne ∼ 104–7 cm−3, magnetic field strength B ∼ 1–30 G, and electron temperature Te ∼ (1–12) × 1010 K of the radiating plasma in a simple one-zone emission model. We show that the net azimuthal linear polarization pattern may result from organized, poloidal magnetic fields in the emission region. In a quantitative comparison with a large library of simulated polarimetric images from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, we identify a subset of physical models that can explain critical features of the polarimetric EHT observations while producing a relativistic jet of sufficient power. The consistent GRMHD models are all of magnetically arrested accretion disks, where near-horizon magnetic fields are dynamically important. We use the models to infer a mass accretion rate onto the black hole in M87 of (3–20) × 10−4Me yr−1. en_US
dc.description.department Physics en_US
dc.description.librarian am2022 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The authors of the present Letter thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs), and Fondecyt 3190878; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship; Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Centre node in the Netherlands, the NL astronomy research network NOVA and the astronomy institutes of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Radboud University; the black hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects U0004-246083, U0004-259839, F0003-272050, M0037-279006, F0003-281692, 104497, 275201, 263356, 57265507); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico- Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM, projects IN112417 and IN112820); the EACOA Fellowship of the East Asia Core Observatories Association; the European Research Council Synergy Grant “BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); MICINN Research Project PID2019-108995GB-C22; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF- 3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; Joint Princeton/Flatiron and Joint Columbia/Flatiron Postdoctoral Fellowships, research at the Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSWSLH057, QYZDJSSW- SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011). We further thank the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); theMax Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, JP19H01943, 25120007); the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6; the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M- 001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119- M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110- 005, 108-2112-M-001-048, and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567, NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant 80NSSC20K0527, NASA grant NNX17AL82G, Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001- A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555, and NASA NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST- 0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST- 1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST- 1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST- 1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1615796, AST- 1715061, AST-1716327, AST-1716536, OISE-1743747, AST- 1816420, AST-1903847, AST-1935980, AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007, 11991052, 11991053); a fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M671266); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants 2014H1A2A1018695, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066 561, Basic Research Support Grant 2019R1F1A1059721); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) of South Africa; the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Innovation and National Research Foundation; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018- 098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P, PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (grant P18- FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (grant 2019AEP112); the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000 001); the European Unionʼs Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 730562 Radio- Net; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X and DD7-18089X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI- 0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TGAST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario. ca), Calcul Quebec ( and Compute Canada ( We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Akiyama, K., Algaba, J.C., Alberdi, A., et al. 2021, 'First M87 event horizon telescope results. VIII. Magnetic field structure near the event horizon', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 910, no.. L13, pp. 1-43. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8205 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 2041-8213 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher IOP Publishing en_US
dc.rights © 2019. The American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. en_US
dc.subject Accretion en_US
dc.subject Black holes en_US
dc.subject Event horizons en_US
dc.subject Jets en_US
dc.subject Kerr black holes en_US
dc.subject Magnetic fields en_US
dc.subject Magnetohydrodynamics en_US
dc.subject Plasma astrophysics en_US
dc.subject Polarimetry en_US
dc.subject Radiative transfer en_US
dc.subject Radio jets en_US
dc.subject Relativistic jets en_US
dc.title First M87 event horizon telescope results. VIII. Magnetic field structure near the event horizon en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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