AIM OF THE STUDY:
The ethanolic stem bark extract of Harungana madagascariensis (Hypericaceae), (Choisy) Poir were evaluated for their activities on Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta) Stabler isolated from the pigeon (Columba livia). It was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on N67 Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on Plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The anti-trichomonal screening was performed in vitro using Trichomonas gallinae culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) is the lowest concentration of the test extract in which no motile organisms were observed. The anti-malarial effects were determined in-vivo for suppressive, curative and prophylactic activities in mice receiving a standard inoculum size of 1 × 107 (0.2 ml) infected erythrocytes of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis intraperitoneally, and the in vitro was performed against 3 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in a candle jar procedures.
The IC50 of the extract and metronidazole (MDZ) (Flagyl) on Trichomonas gallinae at 48 h are 187 and 1.56 μg/ml. The IC50 of the extract, chloroquine (CQ) and artemether (ART) on Plasmodium falciparum are between 0.052 and 0.517 μg/ml for the extract and 0.021 and 0.0412 μg/ml for ART and CQ, respectively. The actions of the extract in in vivo study on Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis showed that in both suppressive and prophylactic tests the percentages chemo-suppressive were between 28.6–44.8% and 30.2–78.2% respectively, while only 80 mg/kg of the extract reduced the parasitaemia level when compared to the control and the standard drugs in curative test.
Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract therefore exhibited significant anti-protozoan effects against Trichomonas and Plasmodium both in vivo and in vitro.