Ergot alkaloids

Show simple item record Botha, C.J. (Christoffel Jacobus) Venter, Elna
dc.contributor.other University of Pretoria. Faculty of Veterinary Science. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences. Section Pharmacology and Toxicology
dc.coverage.spatial Africa en
dc.coverage.spatial South Africa en 2008-12-22T09:56:00Z 2008-12-22T09:56:00Z 2002
dc.description Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 20.7 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 2: 6.4 kb, 150 ppi; Photo 3: 29.3 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 4: 7.3 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 5: 23.4 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 6: 10.2 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 7: 9.7 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 8: 19.1 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 9: 15.6 kb, 180 ppi; Photo 10: 9.7 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 11: 47.1 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 12: 18.5 kb, 72 ppi; Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria. en
dc.description.abstract FUNGI, GRASSES AND SEDGES INVOLVED: Festuca spp. (Neotyphodium coenophialum) Lolium spp. (Claviceps purpurea) Cyperus esculentus (Clacviceps cyperi). en
dc.description.abstract DISTRIBUTION: Cyperus esculentus Yellow nutsedge (English), Geeluintjie (Afrikaans). Grows in moist, disturbed places. Festuca spp. Fescue grass (English / Afrikaans). Lolium spp. Annual rye grass (English), Eenjarige raaigras (Afrikaans). en
dc.description.abstract BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: Cyperus esculentus Yellow nutsedge (English), Geeluintjie (Afrikaans). General: This grass-like herb has perennial rhizomes with roundish tubers. Grows up to 600 mm. The annual aerial stems are 3-angled. Young plants are yellowish-green. Leaves: Shiny leaves that look like grass. Flowers: Branched head with 3 - 5 leaf-like bracts and light brown spikelets in clusters. July - May. Festuca spp. Fescue grass (English) Swenkgras (Afrikaans). General: This is a tufted perennial grass. Leaves: Leaves often have a small lobe or ear at the base, and old leaf sheaths usually split into fibres. Flowers: The inflorescence is an open or contracted panicle. The spikelets are laterally flattened. Lolium spp. General: An annual, dense, tufted, soft grass. Leaves: The leaves are green and shiny and the culms usually unbranched. Flowers: The inflorescence is flat with the spikelets evenly arranged on either side of the central axis. The size of the awns is up to 10 mm, which distinguishes it from Lolium perenne. en
dc.description.abstract TOXIC PRINCIPLE: The Claviceps spp. form ergots, which contain different ergot alkaloids of which ergotamine and ergocryptine are the most important. • The endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum also produces ergot alkaloids such as ergovaline. Mechanism of action: • The ergot alkaloids induce peripheral vasoconstriction, which prevents heat loss and results in hyperthermia (summer syndrome) during hot weather and hot spells. Not seen during cool weather. • During winter the existing vasoconstriction is exacerbated causing ischaemia of the extremities (tail, feet, ears), necrosis and dry gangrene. • A decrease in serum prolactin has also been reported. en
dc.description.abstract SYNDROME: Summer syndrome, Fescue foot. en
dc.description.abstract SYSTEMS AFFECTED: Cardiovascular system. en
dc.description.abstract CLINICAL SIGNS: Clinical signs of hyperthermia: • High morbidity • Hyperthermia • Breathing with an open mouth, with the tongue protruding, • Increased respiratory rate • Excessive salivation • Inappetance • Excessive intake of water with resulting polyuria • Overgrowth of hair in the summer • Reddish-brown discolouration of black patches in Holsteins. • Cattle look for shade and attempt to cool themselves by standing or lying in water or even in the dampness caused by the excessive urination. • Drop in milk production (a decrease in serum prolactin concentration as well as a decreased feed intake). • Reproductive problems (prolactin is required for the maintenance of the corpus luteum). en
dc.description.abstract NECROPSY: Nothing specific. en
dc.description.abstract TREATMENT: Fescue foot: Dry gangrene (during winter). For Summer Syndrome: • Cool down the animals (hose down or spray with water), keep them in shade. • Dopamine-receptor blockers i.e. domperidone, phenothiazine tranquillizers (?). en
dc.description.abstract CONTROL: • Avoid feeding screenings. • Permissible level <0,05% m/m. • Prevent seeding of ryegrass by heavy grazing in early growth stage or the use of herbicides. • Clear lands of nut sedge, eradicate with herbicides. • Cut maize stalks higher when making silage. • Analyse fescue grass to ascertain if endophytes are present and/or producing ergot alkaloids. • Limit the intake of fescue especially during seeding. en
dc.description.uri en
dc.identifier.citation Botha, CJ & Venter, E 2002, 'Plants poisonous to livestock Southern Africa (CD-ROM)' University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pretoria, South Africa. en
dc.rights ©University of Pretoria. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology (Original and digital). Provided for educational purposes only. It may not be downloaded, reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the original copyright holder. Any attempt to circumvent the access controls placed on this file is a violation of copyright laws and is subject to criminal prosecution. Please contact the collection administrator for copyright issues. en
dc.source Original format: University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science. en
dc.subject Plant poisoning en
dc.subject Toxicology en
dc.subject Plant poisoning in animals en
dc.subject Poisonous plants en
dc.subject Ergotamine en
dc.subject Ergocryptine en
dc.subject Ergots en
dc.subject Ergovaline en
dc.subject.lcsh Poisonous plants -- Toxicology -- Africa, Southern en
dc.subject.lcsh Veterinary toxicology en
dc.title Ergot alkaloids en
dc.title.alternative Festuca species en
dc.title.alternative Fescue grass en
dc.title.alternative Neotyphodium coenophialum en
dc.title.alternative Cyperus esculentes en
dc.title.alternative Yellow nutsedge en
dc.title.alternative Geeluintjie af
dc.title.alternative Claviceps purpurea en
dc.title.alternative Lolium species en
dc.title.alternative Annual rye grass en
dc.title.alternative Eenjarige raaigras af
dc.title.alternative Claviceps purpurea en
dc.type Still Image en

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record