• An exotic ornamental shrub planted in suburban gardens
• Originating in South America.
General: Evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to 10 m high.
Leaves: Bright green, glossy leaves.Narrow with a prominent midrib, tapering at both ends.
Flowers: Bright yellow flowers are borne singly or in few-flowered clusters towards tips of the branches. Smooth shiny lobes overlapping in one direction. Summer.
Fruit: Smooth, roundish, green at first, turning black when mature, containing a hard stone with two kernels inside.
Thevetin (very toxic).
Acute poisoning by cardenolide-containing fruit. Also refer to “Tulp Poisoning”.
• Not specific - rather negative
• Subepi- and endocardial haemorrhages
• Lung oedema, congestion, emphysema
• Ruminal atony and enteritis - even haemorrhagic
• Leaves present in rumen.
In more chronic cases small foci of degeneration of cardiac musculature are seen occasionally.
• Activated charcoal is very effective.
• Dose 2g/kg.
• Large dose is essential.
• Adsorption and fixation of excess in rumen.
• Even retro-diffusion back from plasma.
• Minimize stress to prevent catecholamine release.
Additional treatment for valuable animals:
2. ß-blocking agents
3. ACP: Tranquillizer (multipotent blocker)
4. Atropine (if AV-block is present).
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG, 72 ppi. Photo 1: 24 kb; Photo 2: 48.5 kb; Photo 3: 9.7 kb. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.