• Widespread in bushveld and grassland, generally in hot parts of the country on a variety of soil types
• Usually among trees and bushes
General: This is a sturdy, succulent, vigorous climber (can be shrub-like) which grows in and over trees and other shrubs, sometimes smothering the supporting plant. The lower part of the stem has a thick corky bark. The grey-green branches are pencil-shaped, usually ± 5 - 10 mm in diameter. White latex appears when the plant is damaged.
Leaves: No leaves
Flowers: Star-shaped, creamy-white to yellow and sweet smelling. In clusters at the nodes.
Fruit: The fruit resembles a pair of horns. The flat seeds have each a plume of stiff hairs.
• Indications are that it is very similar to the “cynanchosides”
• The toxicity varies a lot – it can actually be non-toxic at times.
Central nervous system.
• Nervous syndrome, very similar to cynanchosis, which occurs in
cattle, sheep, goats (especially Angora goats) and horses in the
dry parts of the country when grazing is scarce.
• Animals can show paresis and nervousness for days, following acute
• Temperature elevated.
However, animals don’t usually develop a paralysis syndrome as in cynanchosis.
• Clinical signs occur after 4 - 8 hours.
• Death 12 - 24 hours later.
• Sometimes sick for a week.
• Glucosuria and changes in the kidneys rapidly sets in (confuse with pulpy kidney)
• Plant remnants in the rumen.
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 25.4 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 2: 8.08 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 3: 42.3 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 4: 52.9 kb, 72 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.