Pteridium aquilinum

Show simple item record Botha, C.J. (Christoffel Jacobus) Venter, Elna
dc.contributor.other University of Pretoria. Faculty of Veterinary Science. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences. Section Pharmacology and Toxicology
dc.coverage.spatial Africa en
dc.coverage.spatial South Africa en 2008-12-19T10:57:41Z 2008-12-19T10:57:41Z 2002
dc.description Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 57.8 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 2: 15.1 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 3: 12.3 kb, 96 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria. en
dc.description.abstract DISTRIBUTION: It is widespread in South Africa, especially in the high rainfall areas, where it can become an invasive plague. en
dc.description.abstract BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: General: A perennial fern that grows ±1,5 m high. It spreads quickly by means of branched underground rootstocks. These are covered with thick reddish hairs. Leaves: The young leaves (croziers) are coiled and hairy. As they unfold, they become stiff, leathery and glossy green. Spores: The spores resemble a rusty powder on the underside of the leaf. They are borne submarginally as a continuous line closely following the leaf margin. en
dc.description.abstract TOXIC PRINCIPLE: Croziers, fresh and dried fronds, rhizomes, and even the stems are toxic, though the toxicity varies with different parts of the plant and the stage of growth. Large quantities must be consumed for poisoning to occur. The toxic principles are thiaminase I and a radiomimetic compound, ptaquiloside, which induces aplastic anaemia. Central Nervous System: • Thiamine deficiency: ThiaminaseHaemopoietic System: • Radiomimetic syndrome: Ptaquiloside Systems affected: Central nervous and haemopoietic systems. en
dc.description.abstract CLINICAL SIGNS: Central Nervous System: Horses:Appear sleepy, exhibit laboured breathing, locomotary disturbances, tremors and abnormal stance. Convulsions and opisthotonus may even occur. Cattle: Die from ptaquiloside poisoning before Vit. B1 depletion. Ruminants produce Vit. B1 in the rumen. Sheep: May contract cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) (also known as polioencephalomalacia) due to this plant. Sheep are resistant to ptaquiloside poisoning. Haemopoietic System: Ptaquiloside: Bone marrow depression leads to: • Aplastic anaemia (a lack of development of cells). • Thrombocytopaenia - Prolonged bleeding time due to defective clotting of blood, increasing capillary fragility and increase in heparin-like substances • Leucopaenia - resulting in bacterial infection and fever. Central Nervous System: No meaningful pathological lesions have been reported with bracken poisoning in horses. Haemopoietic System: Cattle: • Extensive haemorrhage and haematomas throughout body. • Numerous ulcers and free blood in g.i.t. en
dc.description.abstract TREATMENT: To counter thiaminase effect administer 100 - 1000 mg thiamine parenterally. For the bleeding tendency: withdraw from source; stimulate bone marrow - anabolic steroids, erythropoietin; protamine sulphate (100 mg i/v); antibiotics. en
dc.description.uri en
dc.identifier.citation Botha, CJ & Venter, E 2002, 'Plants poisonous to livestock Southern Africa (CD-ROM)' University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pretoria, South Africa. en
dc.rights ©University of Pretoria. Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology (Original and digital). Provided for educational purposes only. It may not be downloaded, reproduced or distributed in any format without written permission of the original copyright holder. Any attempt to circumvent the access controls placed on this file is a violation of copyright laws and is subject to criminal prosecution. Please contact the collection administrator for copyright issues. en
dc.source Original format: University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science. en
dc.subject Plant poisoning en
dc.subject Toxicology en
dc.subject Plant poisoning in animals en
dc.subject Poisonous plants en
dc.subject Thiaminase en
dc.subject Ptaquiloside en
dc.subject.lcsh Poisonous plants -- Toxicology -- Africa, Southern en
dc.subject.lcsh Veterinary toxicology en
dc.title Pteridium aquilinum en
dc.title.alternative Bracken en
dc.title.alternative Bracken fern en
dc.title.alternative Adelaarsvaring af
dc.type Still Image en

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record