H. pallida occurs all over South Africa under a variety of climatic conditions, topographical situations and soil types
• M. polystachya is widely distributed in dry areas like Botswana, Namibia, Kalahari, Karoo & Eastern Cape Province.
• M. bipartita to be found in coastal belt of the south-eastern Cape Province.
Moraea polystachya (Blue tulp).
General: Plants medium to large, up to 80 cm high. Corm up to 5 cm in diameter, covered with dark coarse fibres.
Leaves: 3 - 5 Leaves, not longer than the stem, but usually bent and trailing.
Flowers: Violet to pale blue with yellow to orange nectar guides on the outer tepals. March to July.
General: The corm is white, covered by a dark brown fibrous tunic and buried deep in the soil.
Leaves: H. pallida usually has a single leaf (seldom more) formed at the base of the stem. It is long, narrow, strongly ribbed and ensheathes the stem. H. miniata usually has one to four leaves.
Flowers: H. pallida has 6 - 10 star-shaped flowers on a stem. They can be yellow to orange-red. On H. miniata, the branched stems bear clusters of flowers that are usually pink, but can be yellow, orange or red. A star-shaped yellow marking in the throat of the flower is a distinguishing characteristic.
Fruit: Club-shaped, three-celled capsules contain many angled seeds.
•The active principles are cardio-active glycosides
Non-cumulative bufadienolides. Also refer to syndrome of Cardiac Glycoside Intoxication to see “Tulp Poisoning”.
• Fatally poisoned stock usually dies 24 to 48 hours after they have
• Non-fatally poisoned stock generally recovers within three to four days.
• Not specific - rather negative
• Subepi- and endocardial haemorrhages
• Lung oedema, congestion, emphysema
• Ruminal atony and enteritis - even haemorrhagic
• Leaves present in rumen.
In more chronic cases small foci of degeneration of cardiac musculature are seen occasionally.
• Activated charcoal is very effective.
• Dose 2g/kg.
• Large dose is essential.
• Adsorption and fixation of excess in rumen.
• Even retro-diffusion back from plasma.
• Minimize stress to prevent catecholamine release.
Additional treatment for valuable animals:
2. ß-blocking agents
3. ACP: Tranquillizer (multipotent blocker)
4. Atropine (if AV-block is present).
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG, 72 ppi. Photo 1: 6.91 kb; Photo 2: 23.4 kb; Photo 3: 33.5 kb; Photo 4: 9.39 kb; Photo 5: 22.3 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 6: 5.2 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 7: 35.6 kb, 100 ppi; Photo 8: 14.8 kb, 72 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.