• Mainly found in Kwazulu-Natal
• Very variable
• In damp grassland, cliffs and rocky slopes.
General: Up to 1m high. Grows solitary or in colonies. The papery, purplish brown bulbs grow half above the ground.
Leaves: 6 - 8. Usually appear after the flowers. Grey-green, erect, ±500mm.
Flowers: Inflorescence ±300 x 100 mm. Flowers are pale to deep purplish blue on long slender stalks. Spring.
Bufadienolide cardiac glycosides.
• Fatally poisoned stock usually dies 24 to 48 hours.
• Non-fatally poisoned stock generally recovers within three to four days.
• Not specific - rather negative
• Subepi- and endocardial haemorrhages
• Lung oedema, congestion, emphysema
• Ruminal atony and enteritis - even haemorrhagic
• Leaves present in rumen.
In more chronic cases small foci of degeneration of cardiac musculature are seen occasionally.
• Activated charcoal is very effective.
• Dose 2g/kg.
• Large dose is essential.
• Adsorption and fixation of excess in rumen.
• Even retro-diffusion back from plasma.
• Minimize stress to prevent catecholamine release.
Additional treatment for valuable animals:
2. ß -blocking agents.