Widely distributed in southern Africa and grows in a variety of soils.
Invasive in overgrazed areas.
General: A perennial bulbous plant with annual aerial parts. The bulb is pear-shaped, reddish-brown and enclosed in black or purple papery scales.
Leaves: The leaves are grey-green, up to 30 cm long and sometimes have revolute margins.
Flowers: The inflorescence is ±30 cm high and bears numerous white flowers with green or brownish stripes on the backs of the petals. September - October.
Fruit: The fruit is clearly 3-chambered, splitting open to release the black, flat, winged seeds.
General: The bulb grows half exposed above the ground. It is large with tough overlapping fleshy scales.
Leaves: The leaves are grey-green, tough and erect, up to 30 cm long. Produced after the flowers.
Flowers: The inflorescence is up to 60cm high and bears numerous white flowers with a central green stripe, born on horizontal stalks. They usually open early and close by 13h00. September - October.
The active principle of U. sanguinea is a cardiac glycoside, named transvaalin.
• The animal hangs its head and shows signs of muscular weakness.
• Paralysis and death from heart failure may follow.
• Not specific - rather negative.
• Subepi- and endocardial haemorrhages.
• Lung oedema, congestion, emphysema.
• Ruminal atony and enteritis - even haemorrhagic.
• Leaves present in rumen.
In more chronic cases small foci of degeneration of cardiac musculature are seen occasionally.
• Activated charcoal is very effective.
• Dose 2g/kg.
• Large dose is essential.
• Adsorption and fixation of excess in rumen.
• Even retro-diffusion back from plasma.
• Minimize stress to prevent catecholamine release.
Additional treatment for valuable animals:
• ß-blocking agents.
• ACP: Tranquillizer (multipotent blocker).
• Atropine (if AV-block is present).
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 15.8 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 2: 30.5 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 3: 22.1 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 4: 11.6 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 5: 9.06 kb, 180 ppi; Photo 6: 19.9 kb, 300 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.